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Credit: NASA/JPL

Credit: NASA/JPL

NASA astronomers yesterday released a paper announcing the discovery of an additional 768 exoplanets using a new validation technique for data from the Kepler Space Telescope. This has nearly doubled the number of confirmed exoplanets from the previous tally of 941 to 1710. Most dramatically, the number of earth sized exoplanets increased by a factor of five, now making it clear that rocky earths are pretty common throughout the galaxy. Importantly, four of the exoplanets were confirmed to rotate in the habitable zones of their suns – zones where liquid water can exist and extraterrestrial life can flourish. The rapid increase in exoplanet discoveries has come from analysis of only two years of data supplied by the Kepler Mission. Analysis of an additional two years of available data is expected to increase the number of confirmed exoplanets even more dramatically than the latest NASA release. The new confirmation method used by NASA astronomers means that the likelihood of eventually finding exoplanets with extraterrestrial life becomes far greater than previously thought.

NASA astronomers adopted a two-step process for detecting exoplanets using data gained by the Kepler Space Telescope and 11 other currently operating space telescopes. A new generation of space telescopes along with Earth based telescopes promise to provide even more data about exoplanets and their atmospheres. The world’s largest optical telescope is scheduled to begin construction this year on the summit of the Mauna Kea volcano at the Big Island of Hawaii – an hour’s drive from where this article is being written. The new 30 meter telescope is designed to examine exoplanets and their atmospheres for tell tale signs of life. The detection of large amounts of oxygen, for example, would be confirmation for the existence of extraterrestrial life.

When an exoplanet is first detected as it either passes in front of (the transit method) or near enough to its sun to cause detectable wobble (the Doppler effect), it becomes a “candidate” until further data confirms its existence. Currently, there are more than 2500 exoplanet candidates. The length of time need to confirm exoplanets depends on the period of an exoplanet’s rotation around its parent star. As the exoplanet makes its second or subsequent passage in front of or near its sun, astronomers gain the additional data to learn whether or not a candidate exoplanet has been confirmed. So far, only two years of a four year data pool from the Kepler Space Telescope has been analyzed. As more data becomes available, additional exoplanet candidates are likely to be confirmed.

Out of the 768 exoplanets just confirmed, 106 are less than 1.25 times Earth’s diameter. Previously, the data from Kepler and other telescopes had only confirmed 20 earth sized worlds. The four newly confirmed exoplanets orbiting in the habitable zones of their suns were roughly twice the diameter of Earth. This almost doubled the total of exoplanets confirmed in habitable zones from five to nine. What the NASA astronomers didn’t consider, however, was a new way of defining what constitutes a habitable zone for extraterrestrial life.

In January this year, Scientists at the University of Aberdeen and University of St Andrews, Scotland, released a paper titled “Circumstellar habitable zones for deep terrestrial biospheres,” in the journal, Planetary and Space Science. In the paper they redefined the “Goldilocks Zone”, the optimal zone for life to exist on planets. They have found that life can flourish beneath a planet’s surface where liquid water can be found at varying depths. This is how the abstract described this new way of locating extraterrestrial life:

We introduce a new term, subsurface-habitability zone (SSHZ) to denote the range of distances from a star within which rocky planets are habitable at any depth below their surfaces up to a stipulated maximum, and show how SSHZs can be estimated from a model relating temperature, depth and orbital distance. We present results for Earth-like, Mars-like and selected extrasolar terrestrial planets, and conclude that SSHZs are several times wider and include many more planets than conventional surface-based habitable zones.

Using computer simulations, the scientists found that if one goes to a depth of 5km below the surface, then the habitable zone in space increases by a factor of three. If one goes to 10km below the surface, then the habitable zone extends by a factor of 14 which would extend the habitable zone beyond Saturn. Thus several of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, could have life thriving in habitats kilometers beneath their surfaces.

Using the idea of subsurface-habitability zone, many more than only four of the 768 newly confirmed exoplanets could be suitable hosts for extraterrestrial life. As astronomers continue to develop new techniques for confirming the existence of exoplanets, a new understanding for what constitutes a habitable zone is needed. Liquid water can exist either on or beneath the surface of an exoplanet, thereby making it possible for extraterrestrial life to flourish on many more exoplanets than previously thought possible.

In previous announcements of the Kepler Mission data, astronomers confidently predicted that it was only a matter of time before an exoplanet in the habitable zone of its sun would be found to host extraterrestrial life. New techniques for confirming exoplanets and new ways of defining a habitability zone make it even more inevitable that extraterrestrial life will eventually be detected on exoplanets using advanced space telescopes.

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D.

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

NASA ordered immediate destruction of this possible fossil of a crinoid in 20014. Photo Credit: Enterprise Mission.

NASA ordered immediate destruction of this possible crinoid fossil in 20014. Photo Credit: Enterprise Mission.

Richard Hoover, who worked for NASA as an astrobiologist for 46 years, claims to have found “the remains of life forms that are absolutely conclusively extraterrestrial.” In an interview with Lee Spiegel from the Huffington Post released on February 19, Hoover claims that his scientific research on meteorites revealing the existence of microbial extratrerrestrial life has been systematically ignored by NASA. In the interview, he reveals that criticism that his meteorite samples have been contaminated by Earth life is invalid, and can be proven to be so. Hoover was a highly acclaimed NASA scientist who in 1992 was awarded NASA’s inventor of the Year award. Hoover’s interview is yet more evidence that NASA is not only ignoring, but actively covering up evidence of extraterrestrial life.

Hoover’s interview was conducted in Fountain Hills, Arizona where he was a presenter at the Open Minds 2014 International UFO Congress from February 12-16. While at NASA, Hoover wrote papers about his work on meteorites that showed evidence of microfossils. He discovered the fossilized remains of life in meteorites recovered from France in 1864, from Australia in 1969 and from Sri Lanka in 2012. His research ruled out the possibility of earthly contamination, and in normal circumstances would have been heralded as a tremendous scientific breakthrough. On the contrary, NASA simply ignored his research findings about the discovery of microbial extraterrestrial life,

Furthermore, Hoover claims that in 2004, the Mars Rover, Opportunity photographed what clearly looked like the fossilized remains of a crinoid, a marine animal that looks like a sea lily. Hoover showed it to colleagues who immediately recognized the object as a crinoid. However, rather than examine the exciting possibility that Opportunity had photographed the fossilized remains of a living organism, Hoover said that less than four hours after taking the photo, Opportunity’s rock abrasion tool ground the area where the possible fossil lay into dust. He asked David McKay, the former chief astrobiologist at the Johnson Space Center, why this had been done. The response Hoover received was less than satisfactory.

In December 2012, Hoover was part of a research team that found evidence of ancient fossils that were discovered in Sri Lanka. Several papers were published in a scientific journal documenting the extensive research and examination of the microfossils recovered from the meteorite. Once again, NASA has ignored the research documenting the discovery of extraterrestrial life.

Hoover’s experiences while at NASA have convinced him that senior officials are making decisions that systematically ignore and/or lead to the destruction of fossilzed evidence of extraterrestrial life. Hoover’s ground breaking research and interview shows that conclusive proof has been found of microbial extraterrestrial life, but NASA refuses to publicly acknowledge such a discovery.

© Copyright 2014. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

 

Subsurface habitability zones in proportion to distance from sun and depth from surface. Credit: Sean McMahon

Subsurface habitability zones in proportion to distance from sun and depth from surface. Credit: Sean McMahon

Scientists at the University of Aberdeen and University of St Andrews, Scotland, have concluded that extraterrestrial life is far more prevalent than previously thought. In a paper titled “Circumstellar habitable zones for deep terrestrial biospheres,” released in the journal, Planetary and Space Science, they have redefined the “Goldilocks Zone”, the optimal zone for life to exist on planets. They have found that life can flourish beneath a planet’s surface where liquid water can be found at varying depths.

Planets in our solar system where the surface is too frigid for liquid water to exist, may be teeming with life below the surface where liquid water can exist in abundance. Planets such as Mars and moons such as Europa and Ganymede may be teeming with life under their respective frigid surfaces. The scientists’ findings is likely to revolutionize the way in which extraterrestrial life is thought to exist, and where it may be found. Perhaps more significantly, their paper gives support to claims that extraterrestrial life can exist inside worlds with extreme surface conditions such as rogue planets in interstellar space, and extremely hot planets such as Venus.

The Goldilocks zone is currently defined as a region in space where liquid water can exist on the surface on a planet without boiling or freezing. For our solar system, this is roughly the region in space from Venus to Mars. However, as one goes beneath the surface, the temperature increases due to the internal heat generated by the hot cores of a planet or moon. This means that while water may instantly freeze on the surface, thereby making life difficult to establish itself there, liquid water may existence in abundance below the surface.

This is how one of the scientists involved in the “Circumstellar habitable zones” paper, Ph.D. student Sean McMahon, described in the abstract this new way of locating extraterrestrial life:

We introduce a new term, subsurface-habitability zone (SSHZ) to denote the range of distances from a star within which rocky planets are habitable at any depth below their surfaces up to a stipulated maximum, and show how SSHZs can be estimated from a model relating temperature, depth and orbital distance. We present results for Earth-like, Mars-like and selected extrasolar terrestrial planets, and conclude that SSHZs are several times wider and include many more planets than conventional surface-based habitable zones.

Using computer simulations, the scientists found that if one goes to a depth of 5km below the surface, then the habitable zone in space increases by a factor of three. If one goes to 10km below the surface, then the habitable zone extends by a factor of 14 which would extend the habitable zone beyond Saturn. Thus several of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, could have life thriving in habitats kilometers beneath their surfaces.

In response to questions from the International Business Times, McMahon also opened up the possibility that rogue planets that drift in interstellar space may even harbor life:

Rocky planets a few times larger than the Earth could support liquid water at about five km below the surface even in interstellar space (i.e. very far away from a star), even if they have no atmosphere because the larger the planet, the more heat they generate internally.”

The scientists findings give surprising support for the radical theory proposed by Zecharia Sitchin that a rogue planet called Nibiru spends most of its 3600 year orbit in interstellar space. According to Sitchin, the Sumerians believed that Nibiru was the home world of a race of beings called the Anunnaki. The University of Aberdeen scientists paper makes it possible that the Anunnaki, if the Sitchin’s interpretation of the Sumerians is correct, established themselves in underground colonies to survive the long periods in interstellar space.

Furthermore, McMahon pointed out that subsurface conditions protect life from extreme conditions on the surface, and this may be the norm on most habitable planets:

The surfaces of rocky planets and moons that we know of are nothing like Earth. They’re typically cold and barren with no atmosphere or a very thin or even corrosive atmosphere. Going below the surface protects you from a whole host of unpleasant conditions on the surface. So the subsurface habitable zone may turn out to be very important. Earth might even be unusual in having life on the surface.

The scientists’ findings makes it possible that worlds such as Venus, with very hot surface conditions may have a “subsurface-habitability zone” that support life. This gives support to the claims of several extraterrestrial “contactees” that the planet Venus hosts life in underground civilizations. For example, Luis Fernando Mostajo claims to have been taken to an underground civilization on Venus via a stargate device he calls a “Xendra”.

The Goldilocks zone in space is being radically redefined as scientists find more ways in which liquid water can exist in abundant supply on different planets or their moons. The new idea of “subsurface-habitability zones” will dramatically increase the number of exoplanets and exomoons deemed suitable candidates for extraterrestrial life. It is also likely that in the future, we will find that our own solar system harbors life hidden in subterranean regions of different planets and moons.

© Copyright 2014. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

Congress-NASA-ETOn December 4, the House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology of the U.S. Congress held a session discussing the possibility of extraterrestrial life and what should be done to find space aliens. Titled: Astrobiology: The Search for Biosignatures in Our Solar System and Beyond” the session lasted 90 minutes. The meeting was chaired by Lamar Smith of Texas and featured three prominent astrobioligists from NASA, MIT and the Library of Congress. The questions asked by House members were rather general and vague, sometimes descending into the ridiculous. Rep. Ralph Hall (R-Tex) asked the panel: “Do you think there’s life out there and are they studying us — and what do they think of New York City?” Some members of the Democratic Party criticized the meetings as a waste of time. So why did the House hold this meeting at all, and why now?

The answer according to most astrobiologists is that the discovery of exoplanets makes it certain that there are millions, if not billions of earth like planets capable of hosting life in our galaxy alone. A recent statistical paper found that 22% of sun like stars may host habitable planets. Given the high unlikelihood that so much cosmic real estate would be devoid of life that has shown itself to be so robust on Earth, astrobiologists have basically reached a consensus that it is a only a matter of time before alien life is found. This was the observation of Bill Posey, Republican of Florida who said: “You’ve pretty much indicated [the discovery of] life on other planets is inevitable…. It’s just a matter of time and funding.” Posey and other members acknowledged that there needs to be more funding for NASA to build better space telescopes to find exoplanets and support detection programs like SETI to find intelligent alien life out there. Dr Stephen Dick from the Library of Congress challenged the current separation between detecting microbiological and intelligent extraterrestrial life, and called for a renewal of funding for SETI:

In addition to a renewed search with the latest technology, the reinstatement of funding for SETI would allow a systematic examination of these intriguing questions. It would also repair the artificial programmatic divorce between the search for microbial and intelligent life, which, despite engaging different scientific communities, are part of the same research problem. And I believe SETI would be supported by the public, which as always is interested in life beyond Earth, whether microbial or intelligent.

Earlier in May a subcommittee of the House Science Committee heard evidence of the latest astronomical findings concerning exoplanets, and the need to continue funding such research. There are many congressional members sympathetic to NASA and its budgetary needs despite the strict fiscal conservatism of the Republican Party that has led to cut backs in NASA funding. The White House has submitted a budget for NASA of $17.7billion for 2014, which is a slight decrease from 2012. It is not certain that NASA will even get this which is a worry to its supporters.

This latest Congressional meeting comes roughly seven months after a mock congressional hearing involving six former members of Congress. The Citizen Hearings on Disclosure examined evidence of a UFO cover-up and that we are being visited by various extraterrestrial civilizations. The former congressional members did not think it likely that the current Congress would take up any time soon the issue of extraterrestrial life, or at least claims of a cover-up. Yet here we are seven months later and Congress has indeed begun openly discussing extraterrestrial life, though not evidence of a cover-up.

Curiously, current members of the U.S. Congress are open to discussing extraterrestrial life in the context of the latest astronomical data provided by NASA, yet won’t hear from former NASA employees and astronauts about what they know of a cover-up. Apollo 14 astronaut Dr Edgar Mitchell, for example, has been very prominent in speaking out about the cover-up for over a decade. Indeed he testified by live video before the Citizen Disclosure Hearing. Yet don’t expect the House Committee to call upon Dr Mitchell soon to testify. The official stance seems to be that discussion of extraterrestrial life is now fine as long as it’s done in the context of NASA’s discoveries of exoplanets, but don’t discuss the possibility of a cover up by NASA employees and others. That way NASA can get funds for more efforts to find alien life somewhere in deep space, while ridiculing those claiming that NASA has already discovered ET much closer to home.

 © Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

ISON appears as a white smear heading up and away from the sun. Image Credit:  ESA/NASA/SOHO/GSFC

ISON appears as a white smear heading up and away from the sun. Image Credit: ESA/NASA/SOHO/GSFC

On U.S. Thanksgiving Day, Comet ISON survived perihelion – its closest approach to the sun. Initial observations from NASA scientists were that ISON did not survive perihelion as it disappeared into the sun’s shadow. Unexpectedly, fresh astronomical data on the evening of November 28, showed Comet ISON surviving, or at least some of it, as most of its mass may have been lost to the sun. According to Professor Tim O’Brien from the University of Manchester’s Jodrell Bank Observatory: “To all intents and purposes it looked like it had gone, and then amazingly this thing appears out the other side,” Like the proverbial Phoenix, ISON had arisen from the dead after its close solar encounter. According to NASA, Comet ISON continues “a history of surprising behavior” as it “appeared on the other side of the sun … despite not having been seen in observations during its closest approach to the sun.”

Comet ISON will now move back out of the solar system and fly by the Earth at a distance of 40 million miles on December 26, which would still be Christmas Day in parts of the world. ISON may yet put on a spectacular fireworks display living up to the early hopes of astronomers that it would be the “comet of the century.” However, that’s not all there is to ISON according to some observers. ISON is not a natural comet at all, but an object deliberately directed to move along its observed orbit; or, even more surprisingly, an artificially created object.

NASA has provided a series of gif files to show how Comet ISON approached the sun, and surprisingly emerged from its perihelion on Thanksgiving evening.

NASA has officially acknowledged that ISON is behaving in unexpected ways. So is it really just a comet?

According to Richard Hoagland, science advisor on the popular Coast to Coast AM radio show, ISON is following an orbital trajectory that has been artificially created. Hoagland, gave an update on ISON in the early morning hours of Thanksgiving Day which was summarized as follows:

Somebody using the technology of the “secret space program” has maneuvered Comet ISON into its precise orbit for “symbolic, ritual, and celebratory purposes,” as a kind of foreshadowing of amazing announcements or events here on Earth…

For Hoagland, it’s no accident that Comet ISON makes its closest approaches to the sun and earth respectively on U.S. Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day. ISON’s creators have chosen these dates to make possible a chain of global events that fulfill a secret agenda that Hoagland has described at length in his most recent book, Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA.

Even more controversial are the claims of an individual called Tolec, who claims to be in communications with a group of extraterrestrials from the Andromeda constellation and other star systems. According to Tolec, Comet ISON is actually an extraterrestrial mothership. In a November 28 update on his blogsite, he wrote:

 The biosphere – Xanterexx [called by the news media: “comet Ison”] is in fact the “Blue Star Kachina”.  It signifies the coming of major changes to this planet, the harbinger of change & ‘open first contact ‘

If Tolec is correct, then we can expect more than big fireworks when Comet ISON makes its flyby of the Earth on December 26. A simulation of ISON’s trajectory is available here.

According to both Hoagland and Tolec, Comet ISON is a harbinger of planetary wide changes that we can expect to shortly witness. On the other hand, NASA astronomers claim that ISON is nothing more than a naturally formed comet that has shed most of its mass during its perihelion. With its surprising behavior and and Phoenix-like resurrection, ISON may yet turn out to be the “comet of the century”. One thing that most can agree upon is that ISON’s flyby of the Earth around Christmas Day will raise eyebrows as many peer skyward to observe and contemplate this surprising comet or artificially designed object, and its planetary significance.

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

Further Reading

Comet ISON and UFOs

The latest news reports reveal Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is brightening and may yet become the comet of the century. But is ISON a comet? A startling photo has been circulating of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) that shows it comprises three objects rather than a solitary nucleus as claimed by NASA astronomers. The photo was taken by the Hubble space telescope on April 30, 2013, and it shows two of the objects are highly symmetrical cylinder shapes. In August, a number of bloggers began claiming that comet ISON was accompanied by two UFO motherships, and/or its core was in fact a large biosphere. Not so according to NASA scientists who officially responded in a post that the three objects are merely an overlay of three different time exposures of comet ISON.

Comet ISON was discovered in September 2012 by Russian amateur astronomers. It was first photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope on April 10. After disappearing behind the sun from June to August, it appeared again in late August. According to NASA, the Hubble image shows a conventional comet with a small nucleus and a large coma. NASA estimates the nucleus as between three to four miles across, while its coma is about 3100 miles wide and its tail is 57,000 miles long.

Comet ISON began passing Mars on October 1. It was photographed by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on September 29. Comet ISON will make its closest approach to the sun on November 28, which is Thanksgiving Day in the USA. On its way back from the sun, Comet ISON makes its closest approach to Earth on December 26, where it will be 40 million miles away. Clearly too far away for doomsday collision theories. NASA has plotted the trajectory of Comet ISON showing how it passes relatively close to Mars, makes a close flyby of the sun, and then orbits back at some distance from Earth. Many astronomers hope it displays spectacular fireworks as it passes close to the sun in late November. Some going as far as claiming it will the “comet of the century.” Normally, comets heat up and some expand spectacularly as the icy core heats up and gasses ignite. Comet ISON has begun brightening as it approaches the inner solar system. Alan Pickup from the Guardian newspaper today wrote: “The comet was near the 10th magnitude a week ago and may brighten to the 8th or even the 7th magnitude by the end of October. As such, it may soon become visible through binoculars as it dives closer to the Sun.”

Amateur astronomers have analyzed the Hubble telescope images and found that one of them shows the core of Comet ISON comprises three objects – two of which are highly symmetrical cylinder shaped. The three objects clearly reveal themselves when the lighting in the photo is turned down. You can test this yourself here  or watch the embedded video below. According to the amateur astronomers, NASA could not have failed to have noticed this. It is claimed that NASA is hiding the true composition of Comet ISON with images it has released that show only a solitary nucleus. Did NASA simply overlook that the comet’s core comprises three objects or is it hiding something?

Hubble astronomers claim, however, the April 30 photo of ISON doesn’t show three objects at all. In an official reply to blogger claims, Hubble astronomers claimed that the photo, “is the result of combining three exposures that produce the three components, and the shapes are produced by the combined motion of the Hubble telescope and the comet.”

 What makes the issue even more mysterious is an alleged video of comet ISON that appears to show the nucleus being circled by two UFOs. The video is claimed to be from a Chinese satellite, however, the Chinese Space Agency does not contain the video on its website. Furthermore, the resolution is too clear for such a distant object suggesting the video has been forged. Why would someone go to the trouble to create a fake video of comet ISON comprising two cylindrical UFOs circling a nucleus? Was it to generate confusion over the true composition of comet ISON or to call attention to it being accompanied by UFOs?

Regarding the latter possibility, there are many competing claims. One blogger, Tolec, claims that Comet Ison is, in fact, a large biosphere accompanied by two smaller ships:

It is not a comet. This is a large scale ship operated by Galactic Federation forces. Expect it to arrive in the ‘sol’ (solar) system, in Earth’s ‘space’ & in orbit over this planet… sometime in the near future. Consider this sighting to be another major harbinger of the many changes coming to this planet!

One thing is clear so far, a Hubble image of comet ISON taken in April does appear to show that it comprises three objects making up its nucleus – two of which are highly symmetrical cylinder shaped. Could it be that the image is simply an overlay of three different time exposures as Hubble astronomers suggest? In this scenario favored by NASA, the most we can hope for is that ISON spectacularly expands to become the “comet of the century.” Alternatively, does Comet ISON comprise two UFOs accompanying its nucleus as depicted in the alleged Chinese satellite imagery, or is it a large biosphere accompanied by two escort ships? We will have to wait for the truth to emerge as Comet ISON makes its closest approach to the sun in November 2013.

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

Further Reading

 

 

NASA image AS11-41-6155 reveals what appears to be an alien base on the far side of the moon.

NASA image AS11-41-6155 reveals what appears to be an alien base on the far side of the moon.

A photo from the online archive of the Apollo 11 mission reveals what appears to be a base on the far side of the moon. The object appears to be on the moon’s surface and is well illuminated. It is symmetrical with a long shaft separated at each end by a small sphere with another in the center. The spheres appear to be living quarters with connecting corridors. The object was recently discovered by an observer and announced today on UFO Sightings Daily. The photo, AS11-41-6155, is significant since whistleblowers have claimed that NASA regularly scrubs or destroys photos with any evidence of alien life or artificial structures. The Apollo 11 photo does not appear to have been digitally altered in any way, and may be stunning visual evidence of alien life on the far side of the moon.

Here is what the observer who first discovered the photo had to say in an email sent to Scott Waring from UFO Sightings Daily:

I need to let you know about my discovery of what seems to be some kind of UTO (unknown Terrain Object) or UFO, that appears on one of the pictures from an Apollo mission which I don’t remember which one (Apollo 11) it was…I took some screenshots so that you can see the object in very good detail.

To me it looks like some kind of crystal tube with something that appears like an antenna or some kind of special weapon…not sure what it is, but we can figure it out. The first image is the original one which has lots and lots of unknown objects on the surface of the moon! J.M.

The object is well illuminated and symmetrical. It appears to be artificial structure of some kind.

Location of object on far side of moon

Location of object on far side of moon in image AS11-41-6155 – its relative size made it escape detection until recently. Click image for enlargement.

Significantly, whistleblowers have come forward to claim that NASA and affiliated government agencies have a policy of destroying or altering photos that reveal artificial structures on the moon or in space. Karl Wolfe, for example, claims that he witnessed NASA, the NSA and the US Air Force cooperating to remove such structures from Apollo and satellite imagery when detected. The Washington Times had this to say of Wolf’s whistleblower testimony:

Karl Wolf, an Air Force sergeant who was assigned to the National Security Agency, said that mysterious structures were discovered on the far side of the moon when the United States was mapping its surface before the 1969 lunar landing. Those photos too were culled out of the public record.

Another whistleblower is Dr Ken Johnston who was a manager of NASA’s Data and Photo Control Department. Johnston claims that he also witnessed moon photos showing artificial structures and was asked to destroy the photos. He refused and was fired by NASA.

If tampering of Apollo and satellite imagery of the moon’s surface is a regular policy implemented by various NASA and other US government agencies as Wolf and Johnston claim, then Apollo imago AS11-41-6155 may have remained unaltered since the object it depicts escaped detection (see above image). The photo is very large (40 megabytes) and it takes close scrutiny to discover the anomalous object. In conclusion, Apollo 11 image AS11-41-6155 may be smoking gun proof of an alien base on the far side of the moon.

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.

Close up of NASA/JPL photo of what appears to be a squirrel/rat on Mars Credits:  UFO Sightings Daily

Close up of NASA/JPL photo of what appears to be a squirrel/rat on Mars. Credits: UFO Sightings Daily

A photo of what looks like a squirrel or rat on Mars first released in September 2012 suddenly became a hot topic after Fox News covered the story on May 29. Fox was quickly followed by Discovery News, International Business Times and other major news outlets. It appears that the mainstream news is interested in raising the possibility that the Curiosity Rover is capturing images of life on Mars, even though the coverage is slanted towards dismissing such a possibility. In the meantime NASA has remained silent on photographic evidence of animals on Mars from its own Mars rover instruments. According to NASA, Mars atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide with only a trace amount of oxygen 0.13% – not enough to sustain animal life on Mars. If Mars atmosphere is inhospitable to life what is the Curiosity Rover photographing on Mars – rocks that look like animals, animal life that has somehow adapted to live in the Martian atmosphere, or Earth animals released in secret NASA experiments on Mars?

The Curiosity Rover mission photographed what appears to be a rodent of some kind – a rat or squirrel – back on September 28, 2012. Scott Waring from UFO Sightings was the first to post the story about what he thought looked like a squirrel on December 4. He wrote:

A friend emailed this in to me today … and it’s really amazing and strange. I guess that’s why I love this one so much. It’s a cute rodent on Mars. Note it’s lighter color upper and lower eyelids, it’s nose and cheek areas, its ear, its front leg and stomach. Looks similar to a squirrel camouflaged in the stones and sand by its colors. …

There was no mainstream news interest in Waring’s fascinating discovery. Joseph Skipper from Mars Anomaly Research provided the first detailed analysis of the photo with an article on May 10 where he claimed:

Believe it or not, in the above image shown just a presented [sic] by NASA and with no graphics work in it by me, there is very strong anomalous life evidence of mammal life. The question is it of life on Mars similar to that here on Earth encountered by the Curiosity rover on Mars Sol 52 or, alternatively, is it proof that someone has been messing around with the imaging and managed to miss something very important, something revealing what is really going on with the Curiosity imaging.

In the Fox News story, the writers favored the conclusion that the photo depicted rock with an animal face in it:

Others pointed out that the similarity in coloring and position mean it was most likely just a rock, fingering the psychology phenomenon known as pareidolia, a propensity to pick out faces from everyday objects and structures.

Charles Poladian from the International Business Times embraced Fox News explanation  that it was the psychological problem of pareidolia.  Ian O’Neill from Discovery News followed up and mocked the idea that the photo was of a real animal on Mars:

But as you may have guessed, after exercising an ounce of logical thought, what was once a cute furry four-legged creature suddenly becomes… wait for it… this is a good one… a rock. And there you have it ladies and gentlemen: We’ve found a rock on Mars… that looks like a rat.

While the major news media were dismissive that the NASA/JPL photo showed an actual animal on Mars, there was an interesting possibility raised by Scott Waring in an update:

A lot of people are emailing me saying that this squirrel was part of a NASA experiment to test  how long it would live on the surface of Mars and I do believe this does sound like something they might do. Why would they not tell us about it? Because the squirrel would be expected to die eventually and that would get PETA to fight against them in a court of law. SCW

Could animal life survive on Mars in some secret NASA experiment testing adaptability to high carbon dioxide levels? According to the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals:

Inhalation of CO2 at a concentration of 7.5% increases pain threshold, and concentrations of 30% and higher cause deep anesthesia and death with pro­longed exposure … In rats, un­consciousness is induced in approximately 12 to 33 seconds with 80% to 100% CO2 and 40 to 50 seconds with 70% CO2.

Not all animals immediately succumb to high carbon dioxide and can resist for varying lengths of time according to the AVMA guidelines:

On the day of birth, rats and mice ex­posed to 100% CO2 required exposure times of 35 and 50 minutes, respectively, to ensure death. By 10 days of age, exposure times of 5 minutes were sufficient to en­sure death.272,273 For adult mink, 5 minutes of exposure is sufficient to ensure death using 100% CO2, but not using 70% CO2. Rabbits of the genus Oryctolagus also have prolonged survival times when exposed to CO2.

It’s possible that earth animals released on Mars may survive for extended periods – enough to be monitored in secret experiments.

There are three possible conclusions over the squirrel/rat photo taken on Mars. One, the photos depict rocks that appear to be animals in a case of pareidolia, as sceptics insist. Two, terrestrial animals have been released on Mars in some secret NASA experiment monitored by the Curiosity mission. Finally, the percentage of carbon dioxide and oxygen on Mars is not what NASA is telling us and indigenous animal life exists on Mars.

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D.

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Further Reading:

Curiosity photo showing lizard on Mars. Click image for original NASA photo. Credit: UFOsightingsdaily.com

Curiosity photo showing lizard on Mars. Click image for original NASA photo. Credit: UFOsightingsdaily.com

A photo from the Mars Curiosity Rover reveals what appears to be a small animal or lizard on Mars. The photo was taken on February 20, 2013 by Curiosity’s MASTCAM and a high resolution copy is available on NASA’s JPL/Caltech website. The image was originally discovered by a Japanese researcher in March and uploaded to Youtube on May 14. The small figure appears to have a tail, four legs and has the characteristics of a lizard. If the object is indeed a lizard, then the photo from NASA’s own Curiosity mission not only reveals that life exists on Mars, but is also evidence that NASA is ignoring direct evidence of life.

Here is what Scott Waring from UFO Sightings had to say about the Lizard looking creature:

This odd creature was discovered on Mars by a person in Japan in March. This animal was not the first to be discovered in NASA photos but is in a long line of strange creatures. Remember the last one we reported that was very similar to a squirrel … Well this one also seems to resemble a rodent but also may be a lizard. With water existing on Mars in small amounts, its possible to find such desert animals wandering around…although very rare mind you.Then again, is NASA placing animals from tiny cryogenic chambers inside the rover onto the surface of Mars to conduct tests?

The Martian squirrel photo that Waring is referring to is discussed here. Again, another photo from NASA’s Curiosity mission that appears to show an animal on Mars – yet NASA remains silent. Why? Is it, as Waring believes, because NASA is secretly conducting biological tests with terrestrial animals secretly transported there?


The official answer from NASA/JPL is that the Curiosity Mission is designed to find evidence of the conditions for past life on Mars in rocks and soil – e.g., water and chemical compounds necessary for life. Any evidence of current life on Mars is outside the mission parameters of the Curiosity mission. This in itself is noteworthy given evidence that the 1976 Viking Mission conducted tests for life on Mars and the original results were positive, and then deemed inconclusive. The ensuing controversy has not abated with new scientific analysis upholding the original positive results that life was found on Mars.

Also, Dr Thomas Van Flandern former Chief Astronomer for the United States Naval Observatory released his own research findings about photos from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft that there was current vegetation on Mars in the form of shrubs, and trees. In an April 5, 2001 Press Conference at the National Press Club, Washington DC., he presented his evidence of vegetation on Mars along with his analysis of evidence of artificial structures. Van Flandern also revealed the strong opposition to him publishing his findings in peer reviewed scientific journals – a clear way to minimize the ground breaking results that there was photographic evidence of life on Mars. Despite Van Flandern’s professional standing in the astronomical community, NASA and the scientific community ignored his pioneering research revealing vegetation on Mars.

Despite ongoing controversy of the 1976 Viking experiments and Van Flandern’s analysis of photos revealing vegetation on Mars, NASA decided not to include scientific equipment for testing or analyzing data suggesting current life on Mars. Consequently, the Curiosity mission is not designed to analyze any evidence of current life on Mars. As a result, any photographic images of life roving the Martian surface is either ignored, or is dismissed as an anomaly by NASA.

What is the general public to conclude about NASA’s Curiosity Mars mission and lack of equipment for discerning current life on Mars? As the anomalies pile up, we see more and more photographic evidence of what clearly appears to be life on Mars, yet NASA continues to remain silent or obfuscates the obvious. Is the latest photo from Mars Curiosity evidence of life on Mars, or evidence that NASA is secretly conducting biological experiments on the Martian surface?

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

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Further Reading
Screenshot from video showing mysterious alien looking Secret Service agent

Screenshot from video showing mysterious alien looking Secret Service agent in background

A video recording from President Obama’s address at the 2012 AIPAC conference at the Washington Convention Center shows a mysterious looking figure among the Secret Service agents protecting him. From one camera angle, the figure looks uncannily like a tall Gray alien; with no noticeable ear, mouth or facial hair. From most other camera angles, the figure appears as a bald Secret Service agent who looks human enough. Not so according to a popular Youtube video that has over 330,000 hits since its March 13, 2013 release. The bald Secret Service agent is a shape shifting humanoid alien, and the video provides detailed analysis supporting its remarkable claim. So was it all just a trick a light, or did the camera capture something we weren’t supposed to see? In the 1988 science fiction movie classic, They Live, extraterrestrials live among humanity using advanced technology to hide their physical differences. Is it possible that the Secret Service employs aliens to protect President Obama, and uses some kind of advanced technology to hide them from the public eye?

The idea of the U.S. Secret Service employing aliens appears far-fetched, but it was only back on December 7, 2012 that Prime Minister Medvedev said in candid off-air comments that Russian Presidents are briefed on aliens living among us. He went on to add that a highly classified national security agency monitors aliens residing on Earth. Major media thought it was a case of Medvedev’s dry humor, and that he gave the joke away when he referred to the Hollywood Blockbuster, Men in Black. Yet Medvedev appeared to be referring to a Russian documentary instead, one produced by the same network that the female reporter who asked him the alien question worked for. In fact, the reporter asked the question because the network was working on another extraterrestrial related documentary. A disturbing possibility is that the meteor strike on Russia on February 15, 2013 was related to Medevedev’s candid off-air comments about aliens among us. A Russian Parliamentarian claimed that the meteor strike was a warning to the Russian government. Was it a warning that Russian needs to maintain secrecy about alien visitors? If Medvedev wasn’t joking, it is possible that aliens secretly living on Earth aren’t just monitored, but also employed in sensitive security positions like the U.S. Secret Service.

It’s a fact that advanced technologies such as invisibility have been developed for use in classified military projects for some time now. Proof-of-concept demonstrations in the open source literature are available for funding and development purposes by military contractors. Classified versions would predictably be far more advanced, and very likely have been operational for some time now. It’s reasonable to conclude that invisibility or related technologies are used by the Secret Service to make agents disappear, and/or alter their physical appearance. Consequently, Secret Service agents very likely use invisibility technology when protecting the President and other VIPs. Such technologies may also be used by any extraterrestrial aliens recruited into the Secret Service. Is President Obama being guarded by aliens, or was it all just a trick of light? You decide!

© Copyright 2013. Michael E. Salla, Ph.D. Exopolitics.org

This article is copyright © and should not be added in its entirety on other websites or email lists. Permission is granted to include an extract (e.g., introductory paragraph) of this article on website or email lists with a link to the original.